Archives du Mois : novembre 2015

nov
30

Nexyad Visual-Effects Newsletter #12 is available

CALIBRATION, COLOR GRADING & COLOR SATURATION

Highlight :

. Calibration, Color Grading : What to do with the Idea of « Reality »strong>
. Nexyad Skin Colorful


Nexyad Skin colorful

To read more : http://nexyad.net/Visual-Effects/?cat=5

nov
30

Calibration, Color Grading & Color Saturation

NEXYAD Visual Effects Newsletter #12, the 1st of december 2015



CALIBRATION AND COLOR GRADING:
WHAT TO DO WITH THE IDEA OF « REALITY »


Paper by NEXYAD


(Version française)

INTRODUCTION

American cinema uses lots of post production to color images. Everyone knows the famous « Teal & Orange » which gives a tan skin to characters and bluish backgrounds in order to increase the contrast of colors. NEXYAD showed the interest of this approach and even declined painters color grammars and developed a unique method, based on intelligence artificial, to automate coloring of the movies: the NEXYAD Skins.

But some professionals of movie industry are rather against this approach. They explain the failure of too important post treatment of colors that is not realistic from their point of view. The genuine capture of the camera will bring more « realism » to images. We discuss the concept of « realism » in art, especially in the cinema.

REALISM IN PICTURAL ART

Painters have modified their techniques and how they represent reality in centuries. In the Beginning, research was focused on the visual representation of reality as seen with their eyes. This work included:
. perspective
. colors
. representation of materials (and particularly flexible materials such as fabrics)
. representation of human skin
. anatomy
. representation of the illumination light, which plays or not in pictures

Already at this stage, some painters wished to dissociate their work from the « reality » because this leads sometimes to unsightly results. This is particularly the case of mannerist in the sixteenth century that distort the perspectives and change colors to give a more interesting and aesthetic impression in their image. One could see example at the same time a part of a character and a light counterweight another part of the same character slightly diving, and proportions are modified not to correspond to reality, but to match a visual harmony sought by the painter.

Peinture Maniériste
We see on this example how perspectives are false with numerous light inconsistency.
http://www.ago.net/art-as-therapy-politics


Le Correge
Venus caractere is view from underneath but the satyre is view from above.
http://www.aparences.net/art-et-mecenat/les-gonzaga-de-mantoue/jules-romain-a-mantoue/

Then, after the invention of photography, of course, painting loses interest Strict search and visual representation to represent other things, such as:
. Impressionism: transcript of fleeting effects of light with visible brush strokes, instead of representing things in themselves
. Fauvism: use of large flat areas of bright colors separated by visible contours, claiming a mode of perception « instinctive » of the represented scene
. etc..

Then, Surrealism, among others, proposed to represent what we « know » of « reality » rather that what we see, an idea taken in Cubism that breaks thus with the idea of respect of any representation in perspective.
Example: one can also draw a face in profile, but as we « know » that the person has a second eye and a second ear, showing these elements on the profile.
Some surrealists claim a better representation of reality with this principle indrawing precisely what one sees.

REALITY VIEWED BY CAMERA
Another point to clarify is the notion of « reality » of images seen thru a sensor, and in particular by a camera. A camera sensor is an electronic system (eg CMOS) that turns a bright solicitation to electrical quantity. Filters are placed in front of sensors to allow the capture of certain colors only. For example, red, green, blue. However, each filter manufacturer produces different filters, CMOS devices are different from one camera to another, and the analogic electronics or digital of one camera is also developed by the camera manufacturer and therefore unique. This means that two cameras observing the very same scene do not produce the same image. We could calibrate the luminances of cameras by transforming them into measuring devices (table of correspondence between the sum of the luminances of the image and the output of a luminance meter).
However, for the colors, it’s different: only two thirds of the colors are « true » color, which is that they correspond to the visual impression that can generate a similar wavelength. The color can be then designate by its wavelength. This works well for the colors of the rainbow. But for one third of the colors, it does not exist: our brain manufactures A colorful visual impression, but it is not possible to find A wavelength that generates the same visual impression. These colors are complex mixtures of wavelengths. Two very different mixes can generate close visual impressions. Two slightly different mixtures can generate very different visual impressions. Therefore it is not possible to calibrate a camera in « colors ».
The intrinsic difference between two cameras is « normal. »
We show below the work published on the internet by Geoff Boyle’s Cinematography Mailing List: CML- CMIR Camera Evaluation January 2015
AjA Cion - BlackMagic
BlackMagic Vs AJA CION


It is possible to create « camera fitting » to paste the dynamics and colors of a camera on the other (link), but none of it is anyway to « reality » …
Aja Cion - BlackMagic / Nexyad Camera Fitting
BlackMagic Vs AJA CION turned to BlackMagic / Camera Fitting by Nexyad

REALITY OF CINEMA FILM
In a movie, the filmmaker chooses, at every moment, where he puts the camera. This process that gives a « point of view », fixed or mobile, is completely artificial, because in « reality » there is no camera. Talking about « realism » is antithetical to the very concept of cinema. The camera plays in the film, in the same way as the actors. Furthermore, the camera captures a 2D image of a 3D world in the visible (the caress of the wind is not captured, even with two cameras for capture in relief). Another point, the film editing: in reality, there is no cutting into shots chained one behind the other one. In short, cinema movie is a device that allow to tell a story, it do not describe reality. Of course, a historical film has no relation to reality, even if it is extremely detailed and shows real facts which have existed in the past.
If realism is one of the objectives of the film maker, he has to use effects and tricks to give the audience a feeling of realism.
Include director George Lucas, « The secret to film is that it’s an illusion »

CINEMA AND ARTISTIC WORK
The question to ask is the artistic question: cinema is there an artistic expression ? If the answer is yes, then we can assume that, as in the case of art painting, filmmakers are able to create an object free of constraints. This latitude can now have concret form by the use of digital special effects, and also with the calibration which offer a wide variety of colored atmosphere.

Jurassic World
Image presented as a quote illustrating our subject: Jurassic World (Directed by Colin Trevorrow)
3D digital special effects technologies are used to create « realistic » scenes with dinosaurs.


Underworld
Image presented as a quote illustrating our subject: Underworld III (Directed by Patrick Tatopoulos)
Technology color grading (color calibration) Digital can create an atmosphere (here pale and blue) that communicates a consistent printing with the nature of the characters (here vampires) or about history.


Spectre
Image presented as a quote illustrating our subject: Spectre (Directed by Sam Mendes)
Technology color grading (color calibration) Digital can create an atmosphere beige brown and blue (see window) giving an oppressive and gloomy atmosphere, according to the purpose of the scene (discussion with Mr White who is dying). It is noted that the render of this picture is very graphic and looks like a painting.


Amélie Poulain
Image presented as a quote illustrating our subject: Le Fabuleux Destion d’Amelie Poulain (Directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet)
Technology color grading (color calibration) Digital can create an opposition between Character pink cream and green decor, as if the character was not for the world in which it operates. We find a different shade of the same opposition in the movie The Matrix (directed by Andy and Larry Wachowski).


We can bet that a camera raw output would fail to render « real  » this scene from the last James Bond (above): this is the difference between « realism » and « real ». Here, the filmmaker has cheat with colors to make us feel an atmosphere which in this case amplifies the emotional value of the scene. Of course, in theory it is possible to perform this type of color oppositions « in live », using color filters (gelatine), makeup and cinema set, directly the desired colors… But everyone understands whereas if it is possible, it is extremely expensive and reserved for the super productions. The digital work of images gives a very good result for a much more affordable budget.

CALIBRATION THAT CHANGED COLORS « ORIGINAL »
modification of colors outputs of a camera is as we have seen one of the tools which the filmmaker uses to create his artistic object. The Nexyad company has formalized this work, already carried out for years by film colorists, by studying the concordances of colors and by comparing themto polyphonic arrangements in music . Concordances of colors resume painters’s work who have formalized « Color grammars » and gave symbolic meanings, as well as work by film colorists on reference films.
From this study, NEXYAD has developed an artificial intelligence system capable of analyzing colors of an image, then to select the concordance of colors that it is desired (irrespective of original colors of the image)and apply it. Thus, the image processing done will never be the same depending on the dynamic luminance and initial colors, in order that the final render, itself, is the same.
This is not a LUT!
This technology, named « NEXYAD Skin » will be soon available on the internet for all filmmakers, including directors of short films. Examples of renders already available:

Nexyad Skin Golden
Nexyad Skin Golden


Nexyad Skin Teal & Orange
Nexyad Skin Teal & Orange


Nexyad Skin Sovcolor
Nexyad Skin Sovcolor


Nexyad Skin Technicolor
Nexyad Skin 3 strip Technicolor


Nexyad Skin Steel & Pink
Nexyad Skin Green & Pink


Nexyad Skin Steel & Pink
Nexyad Skin Steel & Pink


Nexyad Skin Green & Orange
Nexyad Skin Green & Orange


* * * * *



NEXYAD SKIN COLORFUL

What is a Nexyad Skin ?
The Nexyad Skins are based on a high technology combining image analysis, human visual perception analysis, image processing and color theories of great picturial movements. Whatever the incoming images (rushes or already modified) the application of our Skins generates a final rendering with the selected colors positioned where we wish.
Our skins are not LUT and it do not need any human intervention.

Technology Demo NEXYAD Skin "Colorful" 01 from NEXYAD on Vimeo.



Technology Demo NEXYAD Skin "Colorful" 02 from NEXYAD on Vimeo.


This time our team Nexyad visual effects has worked on an improvement of a high color saturation. The difficulty is to saturate the colors without drool and noise, in addition to finding a good color balance. For over a decade now, the color saturation is no longer taboo. This is visible especially in comedies from Hollywood, at Bollywood in general, and in TV shows like the famous « CSI Miami. »
With our Nexyad Skin Colorful, it is now possible to transform your movies and pictures in one click for more colored effects without any articfact.

No Pain No Gain
« No Pain No Gain » directed by Michael Bay for quote.


See all Nexyad Skin Démos on Vimeo : https://vimeo.com/channels/931927/


See our result compared to the Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%. The Nexyad Skin Colorful makes the job without any noise, but Photoshop produces noise as seen in the last picture « detail ». These pictures have been taken with an Iphone 6.
Nexyad Colorfull 01
Nexyad Skin Colorful


Adobe Vibrance 01
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%


Nexyad Colorfull 02
Nexyad Skin Colorful


Adobe Vibrance 02
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%


Nexyad Colorfull 02 Detail
Nexyad Skin Colorful detail


Adobe Vibrance 02 Detail
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100% detail

nov
10

New Nexyad Skin : the Colorful

New Nexyad Skin : the Colorful
We have worked about a strong enhancement of the color’s saturation : see our result compared to the Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%. The Nexyad Skin Colorfull makes the job without any noise, but Photoshop produces noise as seen in the last picture « detail ». These pictures have been taken with an Iphone 6.

Nexyad Colorfull 01
Nexyad Skin Colorful


Adobe Vibrance 01
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%


Nexyad Colorfull 02
Nexyad Skin Colorful


Adobe Vibrance 02
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100%


Nexyad Colorfull 02 Detail
Nexyad Skin Colorful detail


Adobe Vibrance 02 Detail
Adobe Photoshop « Vibrance » effect 100% detail